Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome: Case Report

Mahesh Babu Sodalagunta, Sreenivasa Rao Sudulagunta, Monica Kumbhat, Mona Sepehrar, Aravinda Settikere Nataraju, Shiva Kumar Bangalore Raja

Abstract


Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological syndrome characterized by headache, seizures, altered mental status, and visual loss, as well as white matter vasogenic edema affecting the posterior occipital and parietal lobes of the brain predominantly. This clinical syndrome is increasingly recognized due to improvement and availability of brain imaging, specifically magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 35-year-old female with history of unsafe abortion and massive blood transfusion 10 days ago was brought to the emergency room with three episodes of generalized tonic clonic seizures, urinary incontinence and altered sensorium since 3 hours. Brain MRI showed bilateral occipital, parietal, frontal cortex and subcortical white matter T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensities, suggestive of PRES. Patient improved after management with intravenous fluids, antibiotics, antiepileptics and monitoring of blood pressure. If recognized and treated early, the clinical syndrome commonly resolves within a week. PRES can be a major problem in rapid and massive blood transfusion. High index of suspicion and prompt treatment can reduce morbidity and mortality, and pave the path for early recovery.




J Neurol Res. 2016;6(5-6):106-110
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jnr402w

Keywords


Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; Blood transfusion; Brain MRI; Antiepileptics

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