Journal of Neurology Research, ISSN 1923-2845 print, 1923-2853 online, Open Access
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Volume 11, Number 5, October 2021, pages 77-86

Vestibular Migraine With Brainstem Auras: A Review of Pathogenesis, Clinical Varieties, Abortive and Prophylactic Treatment


Table 1. Hemiplegic Migraine and Mutation of Genes
FHM: familial hemiplegic migraine.
Chromosome location19p131q232q24
ProteinPore-forming α1 subunit of neuronal Cav2.1 (P/Q type) voltage-gated calcium channelsCatalytic α2 subunit of a glial and neuronal sodium-potassium pumpPore-forming α1 subunit of neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channels
LocationBoth at central synapses and at neuromuscular junction, densely expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cellDuring development, predominantly expressed in neurons, but expression shifts to glial cells by adulthoodExpressed primarily on inhibitory neurons
Main functionTo trigger the release of neurotransmittersUtilizes ATP hydrolysis to transport Na+ ions out of the cell in exchange for K+ ions into the cell, providing the steep Na+ gradient for the transport of glutamate and Ca2+. In adults, to modulate the removal of potassium and glutamate from the synaptic cleft into the glial cellVoltage-gated sodium channels are primarily responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable cells
Type of mutationOver 50 missense mutationsOver 60 missense mutations5 missense mutations