Journal of Neurology Research, ISSN 1923-2845 print, 1923-2853 online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, J Neurol Res and Elmer Press Inc
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Volume 7, Number 4-5, October 2017, pages 67-79

The Pivotal Neuroinflammatory, Therapeutic and Neuroprotective Role of Alpha-Mangostin


Figure 1.
Figure 1. (a) LPS activation of human monocytes triggers numerous intracellular signaling pathways such as IκB kinase (IKK), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway as well as three MAPK pathways: extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. These signaling pathways in turn trigger a multiplicity of transcription factors such as NF-κB (p50/p65) and activator protein 1 (AP-1; c-Fos/c-Jun), which synchronize the stimulation of numerous genes encoding inflammatory mediators leading to inflammation. (b) α-MG appreciably blocks NO, PGE2, TNF-α and iNOS as well as COX-2 generation in LPS-triggered RAW 264.7 cells.